Synopsis: Emerging triumphant from civil war, Shamshi-Adad V devotes his energies to humbling Babylonia. Upon his death, his wife Shammuramat acts as regent for their son, Adad-nirari III, and both campaign across the Euphrates to confront a resurgent Arpad. Under its vigorous king Menua, Urartu begins the military conquests that would end with its regional dominance.
“When Suppiluliuma, king of Kummuh, caused Adad-nirari, king of Assyria and Shammuramat, queen, to cross the Euphrates river; I smashed Attar-shumki, son of Hadram, of the city Arpad, together with eight kings, who were with him at the city Paqarhubunu, their boundary and land…In that year they put up this boundary stone between Suppiluliuma, king of Kummuh, and Halpartuntiya, son of Larama, king of Gurgum.’” – the Pazarcik Stele
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Map of the Iron Age Near East:
Map of Iron Age Northern Syria:
Map of Iron Age Southern Syria and Canaan:
Regional Kings List:
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